How to give performance appraisals


Alexander Garrett Monday, 01 September 2014 .MANAGEMENT  TODAY

A junior member of your team has just sobbed out of her annual review. So how could you approach this appraisal business better? Here’s a crash course.

 

Does the cap fit? Research has shown that conventional appraisals work best for jobs where performance and its measurement are quite simple, says Monica Franco-Santos, senior research fellow at Cranfield School of Management. ‘When the role is more complex, like most managerial jobs where it is the performance of the team that matters, it works less well and you should rely more upon other approaches.’

Scope it. Appraisals have broadened from being a review of the individual’s performance to include business objectives, career ambitions, development goals and general wellbeing, says Franco-Santos. Cover these issues in separate meetings so the focus is not lost, she suggests.

Once is not enough. Performance should be discussed and feedback given much more frequently than once a year. Franco-Santos advocates a ‘continuous conversation’. Stuart Hyland, reward strategy specialist at Hay Group, says: ‘If people are surprised by your feedback, they’ll ask why you didn’t tell them earlier.’

Do your homework. ‘Too often a secretary hands the manager the individual’s file as he or she walks through the door,’ Hyland says. ‘Failure to prepare on both sides means you won’t explore the depth of opportunities available.’

Step forward. Appraisals should be carried out by the immediate boss, says Ian Gooden, chief executive of HR consultancy Chiumento. ‘That’s the person who is best positioned to judge how well someone is doing,’ says Gooden. ‘But talk to others to get a rounded view.’

Find the right pitch. Before you stick in the knife, consider how your assessment will be received. ‘Consider what will work best,’ says Gooden. ‘For some people, the mildest criticism will have them reaching for the tissues, while others can have the skin of a rhinoceros.’ A ‘praise sandwich’ in which you offer praise, followed by constructive criticism, then more praise, is one favoured formula.

&amp;lt;a href=”http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mto.main/news/article;di=3253;di=3254;di=2101;p-di=0;se=12471;pdi=0;auth=false;cid=1307832;cjc=mto;loc=;nt=1;sc=3000;kw=give,performance,appraisals,;p-dl=;p-cat=;p-scat=;p-mf=;lang=en-gb;tile=1;adloc=c501;sz=300×250;ord=1410387682?” target=”_blank”&gt;&lt; img src=”http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mto.main/news/article;di=3253;di=3254;di=2101;p-di=0;se=12471;pdi=0;auth=false;cid=1307832;cjc=mto;loc=;nt=1;sc=3000;kw=give,performance,appraisals,;p-dl=;p-cat=;p-scat=;p-mf=;lang=en-gb;tile=1;adloc=c501;sz=300×250;ord=1410387682?” border=”0″ alt=”” />< /a> Set goals worth scoring. Objectives should be aligned with those of the business and include some element of motivation. ‘Some organisations give people far too many – 25 or 30,’ says Hyland. ‘We think six or eight is enough, which should reflect business need.’

Check out the take-out. Tangible outputs from an appraisal might include a performance rating, a new set of goals or a plan to bridge the performance gap. ‘To be sure that there is clarity on both sides, ask your employee to write a note summarising what you discussed and what you agreed to do,’ says Gooden. Whatever you do, don’t file it away to gather dust.

Do say: ‘Let’s reflect on all the performance discussions we have had in the past 12 months’

Don’t say: ‘You’ve been rubbish and you’re not getting a pay rise’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Degrees aren’t the answer to everything


 

Clem Bastow. DailyLIFE. August 21, 2013

 

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    A long awaited letter arrived in 2002 that had had me watching the mailbox like a hawk for weeks: my academic record from RMIT for the second half of that year. I’d been watching the mailbox because I knew it would contain only one thing – a whole bunch of ‘F’ – and I would immediately have to burn it.

    Yes, you are currently reading the demented scribblings of a professional (award-winning!) journalist what dropped out of journalism school.

    Well, Professional Writing & Editing, and the dropout/fail was due to an administrative communication breakdown that meant my planned deferral ended up on paper as little more than semester-long truancy, but still, it was my second uni cockup in three years (I deferred a BA in Fashion Design and never returned), and it took me about a decade to finally feel ok about it all.

    See, despite all that I’ve done, and the career I’ve managed to carve out, the spectre of being an unqualified drop-out has long haunted me.

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    This haunting is, I’m well aware, mostly irrational, because in truth, had I clocked the BA in Fashion Design, it would have guaranteed little for me save for a possible future academic position, and likewise, the Diploma in Professional Writing & Editing would have been little more than a nice jumble of letters to put on my business card. You don’t need a degree to be a designer, and the ability to write well is arguably a more compelling attribute as a journalist than the ability to secure a degree.

    And yet, why did I – and why do many others in similar situations – feel such a deep sense of shame at being “unqualified” for so long?

    It needn’t be said that degrees aren’t the answer to everything (no smartarses in the comments mentioning the obvious exceptions like medicine and law, please), and perhaps anticipating the needs of dropouts and failures, the internet is teeming with “feel better about your future prospects” type content such as 10 Very Successful People Without A College Degree (Richard Branson! Will Smith! Some other dudes!) and Wikipedia’s handy List Of College Dropout Billionaires (more dudes!).

    Additionally, that lack of a “piece of paper” isn’t an intellectual death sentence (as my family is fond of saying whenever I mope about my lack of a degree, “look at Phillip Adams!!”), or at least it doesn’t need to be. Once libraries ceased to be reminders of my abandoned tertiary education, they became founts of knowledge once more, and I read about Freud, European witchcraft, cookery in the Middle Ages… learning for the sake of learning, which never seemed to be on the cards when I was actually in a place of (institutionalised) learning.

    The further I get from my aborted attempt at further education, the more I wonder about the model we push upon kids in Australia. At my high school, we were expected to know what our VCE subjects would be, more or less, by Year 9, and since VCE subjects are the conduit to whatever tertiary education you end up doing, that effectively means we expect 14 and 15 year olds to know “what they want to be when they grew up”. The decision to study fashion came about because I liked drawing glamorous evening gowns; it wasn’t until much later (this year, really) that I realised it was costume design that I was interested in. How could 14.5-year-old-Me have worked that out? I still don’t know what I want to be when I grow up, other than that now, at 31, I know that I have 30-40 years to work it out!

    As part of my uni dropout rehab, I have also realised the value in short-form further education, something I once pooh-poohed in my desperation to be a real, proper, university-educated academic, even as I knew tertiary ed’s grip on me was slipping. I’ve studied millinery at the CAE, leatherworking at masterclasses in Wyoming, and am this week learning about textile effects for costume design at Central Saint Martins in a pilgrimage of sorts to where my heroes Alexander McQueen and Hussein Chalayan studied.

    McQueen and Chalayan may well have earned their degrees, but at least now, 11 years after I lost the chance to get mine, I feel no shame in walking into their hallowed halls of education to study for five days before returning to my qualification-free existence.

    After all, as Captain Edmund Blackadder so sagely put it, “[I] am a fully rounded human being with a degree from the university of life, a diploma from the school of hard knocks, and three gold stars from the kindergarten of getting the shit kicked out of me.”

    Grassroots Leadership: U.S. Military Academy


    “You can’t lead without making sacrifices.” — Cadet Randy Hopper, U.S. Military Academy
      Keith H. Hammonds .FAST COMPANY. May 31, 2001
    CREDIT:www.ultimateclearlake.com

    Recognized for: Grassroots Leadership

    Home base: West Point, New York

    Year founded: 1802

    “Attention all cadets: There are five minutes to assembly for lunchtime formation. The uniform is battle dress under field jacket.” It’s 11:55 AM. It’s really cold. About 200 feet above a bend in the Hudson River, the wind rushes across the plain at West Point and slams into the six-story granite ramparts of the United States Military Academy.

    This is a massive, fortlike place screaming of history. A statue of General George Washington commands the Parade Ground, flanked by Eisenhower, MacArthur, and Thayer. The stone barracks, square and stark, bear the names of Bradley, Lee, and Pershing.

    “There are four minutes to assembly for lunchtime formation.” Inside, cadet “plebes,” or freshmen, stand at attention, counting off the minutes until the mandatory premeal convocation. Their cues come from clocks mounted every 50 feet or so along the halls.

    Students tumble into the sprawling asphalt courtyards between barracks, as they do at least twice each day, every day, year-round. “Fall in!” The command is like an ionizing charge, driving loose bunches into perfect lines and squares — each square a platoon, four platoons to a company, four companies to a battalion, and two battalions to a regiment. “Attention!” Eyes shoot straight ahead.

    Formation is a defining experience at West Point. Officially, it is a simple exercise in accountability: From platoon on up, officers must know and report how many cadets are present. But there’s more to it, of course. Formation is a nod to the past. Cadets have gathered in this way, on this spot, every day for nearly 200 years. More important, it is a reminder of the primacy of selflessness: Here, the individual yields to the greater whole — to the corps.

    On dismissal, the cadets begin marching. The movement looks choreographed — a dozen drab soldier streams flowing in right angles out of the courtyard. In minutes, it’s over. A few thousand cadets have removed themselves. The courtyard is silent. And you think, That was one seriously weird exercise. A weird and beautiful thing.

    That pretty much describes the whole place.

    Leadership Lessons (I)

    “The first lesson I learned as a plebe came from an upperclassman yelling in my face. He told me that there were four acceptable answers: ‘Yes, sir’; ‘No, sir’; ‘No excuse, sir’; and ‘Sir, I do not understand.’ He’d ask, ‘Why aren’t your shoes shined?’ and I’d say, ‘Well, it was muddy, and I didn’t have time.’ He’d be all over me. He was trying to teach me something: If you have to take men up a hill and write letters to their moms that night, there’s literally no excuse. If you have to lay off thousands of people from your company, there’s no excuse. You should have seen it coming and done something about it.” –James Kimsey, ’62, founding CEO, America Online

    The “West Point of Leadership”

    Each spring, West Point graduates 900-odd men and women, granting each of them a bachelor’s degree and a commission as second lieutenant in the U.S. Army. After six-week leaves, they travel to places like Kosovo, Germany, and Guam. Once there, they take on their first jobs as military officers.

    This fact alone is stunning: As a nation, we are entrusting to 21-year-olds the safety of our enlisted troops, not to mention the care and deployment of weapons of mass destruction, the keeping of peace, and the occasional waging of war. The corresponding fact is this: By the time they leave West Point, most of these kids are unquestionably up to the job. From the day that they set foot on campus (in early July, before their freshman year), cadets are prepared to take on responsibility, to face challenges, to make decisions under stress, and to pursue the goals set out for them — relentlessly.

    The U.S. Military Academy is a factory, and what it manufactures is leaders. Over the years, it has become probably the most effective institution for leadership development in the country. If Harvard Business School is “the West Point of capitalism,” well, when it comes to leadership, West Point is the real thing.

    Of course, this leadership factory supplies the military. In return for a free college education, graduates are required to serve the U.S. Army for at least five years. After that, however, many spin out into areas like government, education, and, most often, business — where they thrive. “You see them everywhere,” says Geoff Champion, a 1972 graduate and a partner at Korn/Ferry. They sit atop Amazon.com, America Online, Commerce One, SciQuest, and many other successful companies.

    Why? Understand this about West Point: Everything that we have read and heard about it — the rules, the structure, the rigidity, the conformity — is essentially true. This is a school where students learn, in one class, that “the mortar is your best friend.”

    But understand this too: There’s more to the story. The academy’s complex and arcane education hangs on an intriguing tension. Think of it, as West Point’s own leaders do, in terms of Athens and Sparta. The structure, the monotonous regime, the rote memorization — that’s Sparta, and it’s important. Yet West Point also nurtures creativity and flexibility — the Athens.

    In the chaos of battle, as in business, leaders can’t expect to stick to a fixed plan. They depend on the predictable competence of their subordinates (instilled by all of that training) as well as on their own judgment. Military officers are given orders, but how they get the job done is up to them. “Everything that happens at West Point serves a question,” says Ed Ruggero, a 1980 graduate and the author of Duty First: West Point and the Making of American Leaders (HarperCollins, 2001): “How do you develop an organization that can thrive amid constant change?”

    “This is a unique world, where everyone is trying to develop you,” says David Sattelmeyer, a senior, or “firstie,” and a battalion commander, one of the highest-ranking cadet positions. “You’re constantly watching others to see what works. And people are constantly looking at you. The place keeps pushing you.” Everyone is following, and nearly everyone is leading, all the time. Everyone is evaluated — all the time. Every action is taken as an opportunity to learn.

    Leadership Lessons (II)

    “I had a former roommate who committed an honor-code violation. When he told me what he’d done, I didn’t bat an eye. I reported him. Not because I didn’t care about him; I cared deeply. But I knew that the principle was more important than his being given a second chance. I was 18, and I realized that my first responsibility was to the principle of honor.” –John Grisillo, ’87, president, Compass Group

    The Leadership Formula: Knowing, Doing, Being

    “People say you can’t change someone,” says Lieutenant Colonel Scott Snook, “but we’re privileged here. We have some of the best and brightest potential in this country, and we have them for 47 months, 24-7. We got ’em at night, on weekends, all summer long.”

    He is not boasting, exactly. He is marveling at the opportunity. “We have them when they’re 18, which is a crucial moment,” says Snook, who graduated from West Point in 1980. “They’re ripe for change. Not only do we have them, but we’re also empowered to change them. The country asks us to change who they are!”

    Back in rural Pennsylvania, where he grew up, Snook wanted to be a doctor. To his own surprise, he has stuck with the Army for 21 years since his cadet days. He was the executive officer of a company in Grenada, where he was wounded by friendly fire. He earned an MBA and a PhD in organizational behavior at Harvard, where he returns regularly to teach in executive programs.

    Snook now heads West Point’s Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis. His mandate is to confront the academy’s well-worn apparatus for leadership development and to seek a scientific basis for a system that’s rooted in experience and inertia: Why are things done the way they are? What works? How does it work? Could it work better?

    The first Army leadership manual, written 25 years ago, coined the expression “Be, know, do.” It was a neat summation of how effective leaders operate, but it also pointed to the central challenge of leadership development. The capacity for “knowing” and “doing” is relatively easy to build up in a student. It’s a function of education and training, which is what most universities are good at.

    But knowledge and skills are perishable — both because they’re not applied all the time and because they can become outdated. It’s the “be” piece — your self-concept, your values, your ethical makeup, who you are — that lasts. That’s what consumes Snook: What does it mean to be an officer? And how can West Point shape the “be” piece for each of its 4,000 cadets?

    Snook really loves this stuff. West Point has devised a mechanism, perhaps unwittingly, that forces 18-year-olds to grow up. Cadets advance by confronting moral ambiguity, by resolving competing claims on their identity. That’s how you get at the “be” piece. “We don’t know if we have it right,” Snook says. “But it happens through experiences, if you’re passionately involved. And bottom line, the sorts of experiences that change you are those that get you out of your comfort zone.

    “Sometimes,” Snook continues, “the biggest window for changing someone’s self-concept opens when he fails. That’s a fundamentally different way of thinking about development. It might be when he fails a course for the first time in his life or when he commits an honor-code violation. When that happens, he’s open to self-reflection.”

    Leadership Lessons (III)

    “West Point is a uniquely humbling experience. I came from a small town, where I was a good student and captain of my sports teams. I showed up at West Point and found that 60% of my classmates were team captains, and 20% were valedictorians. One day you’re the local star, and the next you’re just one of thousands of bald heads.” –Dave McCormick, ’87, senior vice president, FreeMarkets Inc.

    To Build Confidence, Teach Humility

    The typical West Point cadet looks something like this: male and white (though 15% of students are women, and 25% are nonwhite). Top decile of his high-school class. Jock. Middle-class, middle-American. He came to the academy because it is free, but he is also patriotic on some level.

    The norm isn’t definitive, of course. Any community of 4,000 people is a community of 4,000 distinctive individuals. But in practice, the cadets who reside in the standard-issue cinder-block rooms of Bradley Barracks look pretty much the same. They say pretty much the same things. Hell, that’s part of the deal here: Everyone is part of a team, no individual more important than the mission of the whole.

    “Why do we make these kids endure such a spartan four years?” Snook asks. “You stay in stone barracks. You can’t put garbage in the garbage cans before 9:30 AM, and the sinks must be clean and dry at all times. So many rules and regulations. Why?

    “Because when you graduate,” Snook continues, “you’re going to be asked to be selfless. For a lot of hours while in the Army, you’re going to suffer. You’ll be away from home for Christmas; you’ll sleep in the mud. There are a lot of things about this job that make you subordinate your self-interest — so get used to it.”

    This is the essence of what cadets learn. They hear it in the classroom, but they also witness it around them, every day. The great leaders they see inspire and motivate because they care for their soldiers and because they’re willing to do themselves whatever they ask of others. “Look at any leader who’s made a big change,” says firstie Randy Hopper. “The key is servanthood. You can’t lead without making sacrifices.”

    Hopper, a 22-year-old cadet from Baytown, Texas, is commander of Company C-2, based in Bradley. There are 32 such companies, each comprised of about 128 students, each with its own nickname (C-2 is the “Flying Circus”), cheer (“Go Circus!”), and culture. The company is the core organizational unit at West Point. It is also the crucible for experiential leadership development. Here’s how it works.

    Plebes are, as ever, at the bottom. They learn how to follow, absorbing and acting on the orders of their superiors. Second-year students, or “yearlings,” are assigned teams of one or two plebes. In this first, modest experience as military leaders, yearlings learn to develop intimate relationships with their subordinates, rooted in mutual trust. They are held directly accountable for their plebes’ performance.

    Yearlings report, in turn, to third-year students, or “cows” (a long story), each cow responsible for squads of two or three yearlings and four to six of their plebe charges. Cast in the roles of noncommissioned officers of the cadet brigade, cows must exercise indirect leadership. They are accountable for the plebes as well, but they must direct behavior through the yearlings. They must learn to motivate by example.

    Firsties run the show. The summer before classes begin, they direct the eight weeks of military training for incoming plebes and yearlings. Come August, they take the roles of commissioned officers in the cadet hierarchy. Platoon leaders report to company commanders and their staffs, who answer to battalion commands, regiments, and the brigade.

    Everyone leads, and everyone follows. Everyone models, and everyone assesses. Cadets’ formal evaluations of their subordinates’ performance count toward final grades. “Everyone’s a teacher,” says firstie Chris Kane, a platoon leader under Hopper in C-2. “That’s what I love about this place. We’re all teachers.”

    In this 24-hour leadership laboratory, students acquire humility. As leaders, they are nothing without followers. “You learn from the beginning that you’re not in a position of leadership because you’re smarter or better,” says firstie and C-2 executive officer Joe Bagaglio. “As soon as you think you know it all, you get burned.”

    And they must perform under stress. Cadets face a daunting crush of academics, sports, and military activities. The academy’s administrators know that there is enough time, in theory, to get it all done; they have studied this. In practice, though, cadets learn to prioritize — what must come first and what can be left undone. More than that, they come to accept that, amid chaos, the only thing that they can control is themselves. Under fire, “you don’t ask how to get it done,” says Kane. “You just do it.”

    Major Tony Burgess follows all of this with reactions that range from concern to bemusement to pride. As the tactical officer attached on a full-time basis to C-2, Burgess, ’90, is likely the single most influential person in the development of the company’s 128 young cadets. He is, as he likes to put it, their “teacher-coach-mentor-disciplinarian-den mother.”

    Burgess himself is a leadership junkie. The son of missionary parents, he spent his childhood in Mexico and entered West Point with grand visions. “I was going to get out of the Army after five years, and by age 30, I was going to be a millionaire in business,” he says. “I didn’t know how, but I was going to do it. Then, somewhere along the way, I fell in love with leading.”

    Burgess has spent 10 years in the infantry, and he will tell you that there is no better job in the world than commanding an Army company. He grew passionate enough about it to start up a Web site, CompanyCommand.com — an unauthorized (but unofficially welcome) resource for company commanders that has attracted many users. With his classmate and best friend, Nate Allen, Burgess has written a book on the same topic, Taking the Guidon: Exceptional Leadership at the Company Level, which is available on his Web site.

    Among his cadet charges, Burgess radiates intensity and enthusiasm. He is at once approachable and reserved, a buddy and a boss. His success depends on maintaining a fine balance — guiding students’ decisions without actually making them, giving students enough rope but knowing when to haul it in. He is the one who must look out for developmental opportunities and failures. He must be ready to influence.

    If Burgess succeeds — if West Point succeeds — his cadets will emerge, he thinks, as the “go-to” people. “They’ll be the ones who you know will make it happen,” he says, “the guys who will do better than we ever imagined possible.”

    Leadership Lessons (IV)

    “I led a team of incoming plebes during basic training. I thought I had to lead the way that I saw others doing it — with stress and shouting, like a traditional drill sergeant. Well, my unit performed very badly. And they hated me. That experience shook me up. I realized that leadership isn’t rule-based. It isn’t about stress. It’s about inspiration, about setting and communicating a vision. It’s about gaining trust. Once you have someone’s trust, once you get them on the same sheet of music, they don’t want to disappoint you. Then leading becomes very easy.” –Christina “CJ” Juhasz, ’90, director in online ventures, Merrill Lynch

    West Point’s Leadership Curriculum

    Until after World War II, there was no explicit leadership instruction at West Point. Back then, the academy was known primarily as an engineering school. How could leadership possibly be taught? How do you teach judgment or inspiration in a classroom?

    Hike to the top floor of Thayer Hall, and you will find Lieutenant Colonel Greg Dardis engaging small groups of firsties in discussions of classical-leadership theory, dissecting such leading-edge thinkers as Morgan McCall and Peter Senge. Cadets today can actually major in leadership. And even if they don’t, such instruction is deeply ingrained in the curriculum.

    In their third year, cadets must take a course called Military Leadership. The timing is significant. At that point, cadets have returned from a summer spent interning with Army units around the world, often temporarily replacing platoon leaders in the field. They have served as team leaders in their cadet company. “They have experience under their belts,” says Dardis, who graduated from West Point in 1979 and now heads the leadership and management studies program. “They’ve observed both good and bad leadership.”

    The object is to reflect on that experience, to assess it in terms of theory. Early in the course, cadets are asked to write about their leadership philosophy — a graded exercise that forces them to reflect on their talents and weaknesses. They write reflection papers that explain theoretical constructs in terms of their own experiences.

    Cadets also take on a raft of case studies penned by West Point faculty, most of them rooted in combat situations. The students also engage in action-learning projects — some of which are distinctly non-military. When Snook taught the class, he would take his students to the elementary school that serves West Point families: “I’d say, ‘You all think you’re leaders? Well, you’re going to lead a recess.’ ” The assignment: Develop a plan for overseeing seven minutes of playground activity.

    Most often, cadets responded by thinking in terms of command and control: First we’ll play dodgeball. Then we’ll move to the swings. I’ll direct every movement of every kid out there.

    Then they watched the teacher lead an actual recess. As kids poured out onto the playground, there was chaos. And then order emerged, as the children basically organized themselves into teams. The exact order that resulted was unpredictable — but it was entirely predictable that some form of order would emerge.

    “I asked them to rate recess,” Snook recalls. “Well, they said that everyone had fun, and no one got hurt. So I asked them to tell me about the leader. ‘Well, the teacher just stood there,’ they said. So, is leading that easy? Is it totally hands-off? No. The way you influence complex, chaotic systems is by setting the starting conditions. You set the starting conditions, the left and right boundaries, and the minimum specifications. The teacher had a fence around the playground, and she established four or five rules. After that, her job was managing by exception.”

    Meanwhile, the leadership of West Point is thinking about the institution’s exceptional past — and challenging future. The academy exists on a razor’s edge. To stay effective, it must retain much of what makes it different — yet it also must continuously accommodate changing external demands. “We can’t be so different that the notion of being the Army of a democracy fails,” says Lieutenant General Daniel W. Christman, the academy’s well-regarded superintendent. “We have to reflect what society demands of us.”

    The 1965 graduate believes that in order to fortify its relevance in the post-Cold War era, the academy must adjust its mission. It must reflect the new ambivalence with which America regards its armed services. That means equipping its graduates less for combat leadership than for “officership” — a vague notion that encompasses any number of the roles that the Army may fill. “We need to educate cadets in a way that doesn’t constitute a military straitjacket,” Christman says.

    That may be so. West Point produces young officers who have been encouraged to act as entrepreneurs, to act quickly and decisively, to operate effectively amid chaos. These are traits that clash with the reality of military service in peacetime. So here’s the irony: If the academy’s education has become less applicable in the Army, it has grown more relevant in business. “Running a company, especially a startup, is not unlike a battle,” says Mark Hoffman, a 1969 graduate and now chairman and CEO of online-exchange giant Commerce One. “Bombs are going off all around you. The market and the competition are changing constantly. Your stock price is falling. You have to stay calm in the face of strife.”

    West Point dedicates itself to producing graduates who will, as its mission statement avers, “dedicate a lifetime of selfless service to the nation.” The vague wording concerns those who believe that such service should be strictly military. But as a nation, we are short of great leadership in every sector. We may lament West Pointers’ abandonment of the military. But guess what? Business has become the new national defense. Service to economy, selfless or not, constitutes service to the nation.

    Sidebar: The Grassroots-Leadership Agenda

    Who: West Point alumni

    Who: Leadership lessons for business

    Why: In an era of great change, business feels a lot like war

    What are the leadership qualities that give West Point grads an edge in business? Academy graduates reflect on what they learned.

    Responsibility: “This is the underlying theory,” says Mark Stabile, ’90, a senior partner at Greencastle Associates Consulting. “If you give people responsibility early, give them the opportunity to go out and do things, they’ll go out and do them.”

    Trust: “Your ability to get people to follow you up the hill into gunfire or into the next Net meltdown is based on your ability to convince them that you have their interests at heart,” says Dave McCormick, ’87, a senior VP at FreeMarkets Inc.

    Flexibility: Structure is important, and predictability of behavior is critical. But in chaotic situations, leaders must be able to decide on the fly. “When you go into battle, order quickly disintegrates, and you have to take action with limited information,” says Mark Hoffman, ’69, chairman and CEO of Commerce One. “You have to make decisions about what to do. You need individuals who can decide in the heat of battle.”

    Failure: “At some point, everyone fails,” says entrepreneur Donald A. Hicks, ’90. “West Point makes you deal with the fact that you’re capable of doing far more than you think – and that at some point, you can’t do any more.”

    Planning: Cadets plan everything – all the time. They imagine the consequences, and they devise contingency solutions. “It’s an internalization that forces you to start thinking ahead,” says AOL founding CEO James Kimsey, ’62. “It causes some degree of paranoia, because you try to think of every outcome so that you will achieve success.”

    The Single Best Way To Develop Leadership Skills


     

    Alice Korngold. FAST COMPANY.   March 26, 2012

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    You might learn a great deal in school, but it’s doubtful that you’ll actually develop as a leader by reading a book or taking a course. The military is right about experiential development: People grow and become leaders by making a commitment to a cause, and having personal responsibility and accountability.

    For those of us in civilian life, there are also ways for us to develop as leaders through experience: through volunteer service. There are myriad nonprofit missions from which to choose, roles and positions in which to engage that are meaningful and productive, and paths for personal and professional advancement.

    Nonprofit board service is particularly compelling for business people and professionals seeking to develop as leaders. While the CEOs and staffs of nonprofits build and run programs and services, boards of  directors provide strategic and financial leadership to ensure each organization’s vitality, integrity, and fulfillment of its mission. Business people who bring valuable skills and experience as well as diverse backgrounds and perspectives are uniquely equipped to help regional, national, and global organizations to achieve success in addressing poverty, education, health care, conservation of natural resources, and other key issues.

    Through nonprofit board experience, business people participate with the CEO in envisioning an organization’s greater potential, creating the revenue model, and achieving success. In fact, nonprofit board service is the ultimate experience in ethics,  accountability, leadership, group dynamics, and crisis management and  communications.

    Here’s the secret to making the most of a service experience:

    1. Choose a cause that’s meaningful to you, and where you like the people. Determine how you can be useful–whether helping with strategic planning, inviting friends to a fundraiser, serving on the advisory council, or serving on the board. If you’ll be serving on the board, be clear about what will be expected of you so that you can fully commit yourself.
    2. Be open to opportunities to raise your hand and say, “I’ll help.” Before you know it, you could be chairing a committee, and eventually perhaps serving as a board officer. (And women, take note: When it comes to nonprofit boards, there’s rarely a glass ceiling.)
    3. Be alert to potential mentors–on the board where you serve and among your friends and colleagues. Talk with other people who serve on boards to share experiences, lessons, and advice.
    4. Always remember the mission. It must be at the forefront of your mind as you participate in discussions and make decisions.
    5. Be generous with your time and your contributions.
    6. Help to recruit and mentor the next wave of volunteers to assist in developing them as leaders.

    Once you get involved, you’ll be surprised at how aware you will become of who’s a thoughtful leader who gets things done, and who’s not. Whom you want to emulate, and whom you don’t. And then books and various readings on leadership development and board governance will become more meaningful in light of your personal experience.
    Having volunteered since I was 10 years old, built and run a nonprofit enterprise that engaged tens of thousands of corporate and community volunteers in service to hundreds of nonprofits, and consulted to global corporations on corporate social responsibility (CSR), I’ve seen firsthand the power of service in fostering leadership development. Most of the hundreds of business people I’ve trained and placed on boards have ascended to board leadership positions; the key has been that the match was right, and the board candidate was committed and ready to say, “I’ll help.”
    Through service, you have tremendous opportunities to develop as a leader, become a more valuable professional where you work, and make a meaningful contribution in improving your community and the world.

    25 Rules for Leaders


    Linda Tischler. FAST COMPANY.  April 30, 2002

    MP900402902

    Leadership. Innovation. Work. Brand. Technology.

    Fast Company’s flagship event centered around those themes for three days of real learning and just-in-time inspiration last week in San Diego. The roster of RealTime speakers included an Irish grocer, a socially responsible potter, and a pediatric physician, among others — distinct characters who all shared one common message: This is your time to lead!

    In calling Fast Company readers to lead change at work and at home, RealTime speakers shared their ideas about the state of business, the power of people, and the future of innovation. Here are 25 of the smartest insights that we took away from the event.

    1. Audit Your Company Cultures “Companies don’t have one culture. They have as many as they have supervisors or managers. You want to build a strong culture? Hold every manager accountable for the culture that he or she builds.” –Marcus Buckingham, coauthor of First, Break All the Rules and Now, Discover Your Strengths

    2. Informed People Don’t Fear Change “People are not afraid of change. They fear the unknown.” –Dick Brown, chairman and CEO of EDS

    3. Beware “Aspirational Accounting” “Enron has changed things significantly. You used to be able to buy a company, account for it in bizarre ways, and make money on the sale. That world is over.” –Nolan Bushnell, founder, chairman, and CEO of uWink Inc.

    4. Empower Your People — Turn Them Loose “Freedom is the greatest when the ground rules are clear. Chalk out the playing field and say, Within those lines, make any decisions you need.” –Dick Brown, chairman and CEO of EDS

    5. Prevent Erosion of Human Assets “We are systematically depreciating our human capital. For most people, the first year with the company is the best. It’s downhill from there.” –Marcus Buckingham, coauthor of First, Break All the Rules and Now, Discover Your Strengths

    6. Be Generous With What You Know “Knowledge sharing is the basis of everything. Share knowledge with reckless abandon.” –Tim Sanders, chief solutions officer at Yahoo

    7. Expand Your Roster “Think of your team as not just the people you pay, but as the people who pay you as well.” –Feargal Quinn, executive chairman of Superquinn

    8. Don’t Judge a Man by the Size of His Wallet “The only thing wrong with poor people is that they don’t have any money. That’s a curable condition.” –Bill Strickland, president and CEO of the Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild and the Bidwell Training Center

    9. Harness Your Skills for Good “Technology has enormous potential to facilitate public-health problem solving. Marcus Welby needs you guys.” –Dr. Irwin Redlener, president and cofounder of the Children’s Health Fund and president of the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore

    10. Groom Your People for Success “Weakness fixing might prevent failure, but strength building leads to excellence. Focus on strength, and manage around weaknesses.” –Marcus Buckingham, coauthor of First, Break All the Rules and Now, Discover Your Strengths

    11. Promote Brand Awareness Throughout Your Enterprise “Everybody throughout the enterprise should know what the brand can and cannot do. There’s an imperative for education.” –Jim Goodwin, vice president of marketing at the Absolut Spirits Co.

    12. Embrace Imperfection — Fast! “Beware of perfect people. They will never propel your enterprise to greatness. They’re too cautious. You’ve got to be fast to be good.” –Dick Brown, chairman and CEO of EDS

    13. Don’t Let the Venture Capitalists Get You Down “Revolutionary change is where real value is created. Don’t assume the capital markets know what the hell they’re doing. The VC market is currently in more disarray than most companies.” –Nolan Bushnell, founder, chairman, and CEO of uWink Inc.

    14. Allow Yourself to Dream “Dreams are maps. The ability to think about the future is what drives us all to attain.” –Dr. Irwin Redlener, president and cofounder of the Children’s Health Fund and president of the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore

    15. Increase Your Net Worth “Networking is sharing your contacts with others to create value without the expectation of compensation. Your network is your net worth.” –Tim Sanders, chief solutions officer at Yahoo

    16. Use Every Teachable Moment “Every time you give somebody compensation, it’s a great time to give feedback.” –Dick Brown, chairman and CEO of EDS

    17. Shine Some Hope “If you want to work with people who have no hope, you have to look like the solution and not the problem.” –Bill Strickland, president and CEO of the Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild and the Bidwell Training Center

    18. Set a New Standard of Performance “We need to get beyond the single bottom line and measure a company’s performance by a triple bottom line. Financial profits alone aren’t enough. The results also need to be good for people and for the environment.” –Scott Bedbury, CEO of Brandstream

    19. Laugh at Yourself “Just when you think the sun shines out of your butt, all you have is an illuminated landing area.” –Nolan Bushnell, founder, chairman, and CEO of uWink Inc.

    20. Get Up, Stand Up “YCDBSOYA: You can’t do business sitting on your armchair.” –Feargal Quinn, executive chairman of Superquinn

    21. Stop Whining — Start Seeking “In these times, it’s important to find the opportunities in the disruptions rather than just to lament the change.” –Rob Glaser, chairman and CEO of RealNetworks Inc.

    22. Leaders: Move It or Lose It “Managers consistently delude themselves about how much good they’re doing. The oath for managers should be the same as physicians: First do no harm. ” –Robert Sutton, professor of management science and engineering at Stanford University

    23. Be Honest “The same thing you want from management is what customers want from you: honest communication. Be honest with your customers; tell them everything you know.” –Bonnie Reitz, vice president of sales and distribution at Continental Airlines

    24. Don’t Stretch This Rule “When you start thinking about growing your brand, be sure not to ignore the Spandex rule: Just because you can, doesn’t mean you should.” –Scott Bedbury, CEO of Brandstream

    25. What’s Your Bottom Line? “People over 65 were asked, ‘If you could live your life over, what would you do differently?’ They said three things: ‘I’d take time to stop and ask the big questions. I’d be more courageous and take more risks in work and love. I’d try to live with purpose — to make a difference.’ You don’t have to be an elder to ask, What’s my own bottom line?”

    The Number One Killer Of Corporate Innovation


    Ken Blanchard and Scott Blanchard .FAST COMPANY. July 23, 2012

    Selling an idea to top leadership before it has generated tangible results can be difficult; very few innovative ideas can stand up to the scrutiny of a core business model. But understanding the four most common ways people interpret change will help you get there.

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    Innovation is essential to keeping an organization alive–everyone knows that. Then why do so few companies innovate?

    Part of the answer is that it’s very hard for people who are invested in the current business to truly embrace disruptive new ideas. Tom Peters talks about this when he says that innovation never happens vertically in a company. One of the fastest ways to kill a good idea is to take an exciting innovation discovered at the front line and move it up the chain by asking your boss, having them ask their boss, and so on. When you run an idea up the chain of command, you almost never get the permission or the resources to innovate well.

    People at the top of the organizational pyramid are usually running the business using lagging indicators. In general, their focus is on defending present revenue streams. More often than not they are nervous about anything that might cannibalize, compete with, or distract from the company’s core business.

    It’s understandable. In many ways, this is exactly what top executives should be concerned about. But that’s also why true innovation usually happens in the corners of the business and works its way up. Building horizontally gives the idea a chance to develop and gain momentum. It also gives the innovation a chance to generate tangible results that can be used later in making the business case to senior leaders.

    In our experience, you are usually better off moving forward after receiving just enough permission to experiment with and develop the innovation. Trying to sell an idea to top leadership before it has generated tangible results can be a very difficult hill to climb. Very few innovative ideas can stand up to the scrutiny of a core business model. Things that are new and disruptive are rarely as good as the present product or service, even though they have the potential to be game changers.

    Don’t overlook assumptions and mindsets

    People have different levels of readiness and capacity to understand change. Robert Marshak, senior scholar in residence at American University and author of Covert Processes at Work: Managing the Five Hidden Dimensions of Organizational Change, wrote a wonderful article that we’ve referred to several times when we’ve come up against change in our company. It’s called “Managing the Metaphors of Change.”

    In the article, Marshak points out that when most people think about change, they assume that others will respond to it the same way they do. Marshak describes four different mindsets, represented by different metaphors, which affect how people view innovation.

    1. Fix and maintain. The theme here is, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” It’s a minimalist approach to innovation that only kicks in when something is broken. One of our consultants ran into this attitude with a prospective banking client. In speaking to a group of senior leaders, our consultant was having trouble getting the group to grasp the concept of a future vision. Slightly exasperated, our consultant asked, “What do you want this bank to look like in five years?” The general consensus was that since the bank had recently been redecorated and since they expected to get seven or eight years out of a typical facelift, they expected the bank to look pretty much the same as it did today. Needless to say, radical innovation was going to be a challenge for this group.

    2. Build and develop. People with this attitude are more open to innovation than Fix and Maintainers. These people are about incrementally improving and building something better than they have today. This can be seen in the way they focus on improving processes—for example, taking a paper process and turning it into a more paperless process.

    3. Transitional. Those with a Transitional mindset are willing to examine current market forces and are looking to stay current. In our company, for example, a Transitional mindset allowed us to continually evolve as training moved from classroom-based delivery to a virtual approach.

    4. Transformative. Those with a Transformative mindset are open to ideas that look completely different from what currently exists. Today’s smart phones are a good example of the product of a Transformative mindset. A complete departure from original cell phones, smart phones allow us to make and receive calls from anywhere, surf the web, read e-mail, access a wide variety of apps and product reviews, map locations, watch videos, and stay in constant touch with friends and family. Central to everything we do, the smartphone has transformed our lives.

    Understand yourself and others

    The different mindsets aren’t necessarily good or bad. What’s important is to understand both your own mindset and the mindset of your audience.

    What is your relationship to innovation? What are the key assumptions and beliefs currently limiting your possibilities for change? What about your peers and colleagues? How can you address different mindsets to encourage them to see new possibilities? Finally, as an organization, how do you develop leaders with the ability to challenge their own assumptions and beliefs?

    Your organization is only as innovative as the people who work within it. As a leader, it’s important that you look in the corners of your organization and your industry for the next innovative idea. Especially seek out and encourage the people developing ideas on the fringes. Consider what you can do to make it easier for yourself and others to see, understand, and leverage new ideas. These are the beginning steps to building a company whose innovations will keep it relevant and competitive now and in the future.

    How To Find Champions Of Innovation Among Your Ranks


     Andy Zynga .FAST COMPANY. September 17, 2012
     MC900303020

    Companies today invest more than ever in innovation and OI (open innovation) to be first to market and advance their goals. When they start to build OI programs the challenge remains how to select the right leaders to spearhead them. The search for an innovation champion often begins internally, with a search for someone who is a confident leader comfortable working in an unstructured environment, capable of thinking creatively and a genuinely good listener. A tall order indeed!

    This person often has the vision to operate outside the company’s traditional business structure, to partner in unstructured environments, and the urgency to drive outcomes–whatever it takes. Often freewheeling and individualistic, these are the right people to launch one-off successes, but not necessarily the right people to fuel and manage an ongoing, repeatable innovation program.

    For example, we worked on a program with a medical device company and it became clear that they would not be able to scale their innovation successes by relying on the successful individual performers in their R&D teams. While these individuals were visionary in the context of their subject matter expertise, they were not very effective at engaging and motivating other innovation teams or in obtaining the broad company support required to take their initiatives to broader successful outcomes.

    Creating an innovation program and having it flourish beyond one well-suited champion with one set of skills typically necessitates a team to kick it off and make it soar. These teams need the energy and can-do approach of the earlier initiators, but cloning themselves does not embed the organization with the attributes and skills that build long-term, sustainable, collaborative innovation.

    As more companies over the years have taken a real interest in investing in innovation, we worked to develop a methodology that would be effective and repeatable for building successful innovation teams.

    We practiced what we preached, so to speak–as I often say “going beyond our four walls” to find the missing piece we needed to build a model that would help companies select leaders to drive and develop innovation cultures from the inside out. We decided to partner with a great company with expertise that complemented our own, CALIPER, a human capital management company that, for the past 50 years, has helped more than 28,000 companies in 13 countries select and develop top performers.

    Together, we co-developed a customized and scientifically sound model to build out teams that would be well positioned to grow OI programs and innovation-driven business cultures. The specialized strengths required for managing innovation teams range from being comfortable reaching into the outside world for new solutions, to being able to help groups of intelligent, independent, and strong-minded individuals to work more collaboratively.

    We found there are actually two key roles needed in an OI team–the visionary and the implementer. Knowing this, we developed two Collaborative Innovation Profiles for Innovation Leaders and Project Managers.

    The profiles surface key differences between these two roles. For instance, Innovation Leaders are visionary, strong communicators, and comfortable with risks. Project Managers are skilled in keeping innovation teams on task, with a sensitivity to organizational needs and goals, and strong attention to detail. Their teams are enhanced by individuals with diverse backgrounds and qualities, from dreamers who push everyone’s thinking “to the edge,” to experts who know what it takes to accomplish specific outcomes. The combined traits build sustainable innovation because the leaders bring fresh blue-sky thinking and the project managers create accountability to ensure a stream of outcomes.

    Here is a quick, high-level snapshot of traits that each of the leadership profiles have, to be referenced in building effective innovation leadership teams:

    Innovation Leaders:

    •Create & Communicate Collaborative Innovation Vision

    •Innovation & Creativity

    •Analytical Thinking

    •Leading Change

    •Organizational Awareness

    •Strategic Partnering

    Project Managers:

    •Planning & Organizing

    •Quality Orientation

    •Innovation & Creativity

    •Analytical Thinking

    •Business Acumen

    •Communication

    •Team Leadership
    Innovation is forward-looking by nature. On the surface, selecting the right team to lead innovation in your organization may seem to require a simple leap of faith in selecting inspirational leaders to make it happen. But this isn’t true.

    Personality profiling, and knowing what management practices and organizational structures spark innovative thinking and action, is the not-so magic combination that delivers results and value.

    Be cautious, though–a great match for the role of the “visionary” is not a great match for that of the “implementer.” And be aware of the traits that can become the demise of either role:

    Innovation Leaders:

    •Thoroughness

    •Anxiety

    Project Managers:

    •Risk-Taking

    •Anxiety

    •Aggressiveness
    Organizations that succeed do so because these “skunkworks” teams are embedded throughout the organization; they include cross-functional contributions from the organization broadly and are empowered with the freedom, budgets, and tools to operate in parallel structures. Still, finding the key integration points is important to unload projects from the innovation team, and make way for new initiatives.

    Innovation is a way of life, a daily challenge, and indeed a thrill for those who are incentivized to think and act fearlessly, knowing the risks (and embracing the rewards) of being the first and the only to cross the boundaries that trailblazers do. With a proven methodology for selecting leaders with qualities that will drive innovation teams forward–rather than in circles–you have a recipe for success on the road to realizing an innovation culture.